“...‘we have no means of knowing what ideal form a letter took in Paul’s mind before he wrote it down’ and ‘we have no means of knowing what ideal form his Gospel took in Luke’s mind before he wrote it down’. We can underline emphatically that the authorial fallacy is a fallacy. The New Testament philologist’s task is not to recover an original authorial text, not only because we cannot at present know on philological grounds what that original text might have been, nor even because there may have been several forms to the tradition, but because philology is not able to make a pronouncement as to whether or not there was such an authorial text. The best it can do with regard to the New Testament is to use the evidence derived from our study of the extant tradition to present a model of the problems with the concept of the author...We can use philology to reconstruct an Initial Text. But we need not then believe that the Initial Text is an authorial text, or a definitive text, or the only form in which the works once circulated.” David C. Parker, Textual Scholarship and the Making of the New Testament, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, pp. 26-27, 29This quote indicates that the current trajectory of New Testament textual scholarship is toward the liberal end of the religious spectrum, despite evangelical text critics who claim otherwise. On page 28, Parker decisively describes himself “as one of the tiny number of people employed in making a critical edition of the New Testament...”
Saturday, May 21, 2022
Friday, May 20, 2022
- Candace Owens Drops New Trailer For ‘The Greatest Lie Ever Told: George Floyd And The Rise Of BLM’ -- “In the documentary, Owens reveals what she learned when she sat down with the people who knew Floyd best — and how a carefully crafted lie quickly swept across the globe.”
- Car Thieves Are Using a New Tactic to Target Vehicles with Keyless Entry, Experts Warn -- “Two people are needed to make a relay theft work. One goes to the front door of an unsuspecting house, because many people store key fobs near the front door.”
- Changes in the English Language -- “A comparison of Old, Middle, and Modern English, using Bible verses from Wessex Gospels, John Wycliffe translation, and King James Bible.”
- Church Life: Our True Political Witness -- “The local church is the most political of assemblies since it represents the One with final judgment over presidents and prime ministers.”
- Buffalo Suspect’s Manifesto Revealed: 5 Statements Proving He Wasn’t a Christian Conservative -- “The gunman killed 10 people and injured three others at a supermarket in a predominantly black neighborhood in Buffalo. Payton Gendron is a self-proclaimed atheist who denounced conservatism, Christianity, and Fox News in his 180-page manifesto.”
- Does God Hear Scripted Prayers? Lessons from a Puritan Controversy -- “The clearest reason some Puritans opposed such prayers is because they believed their use violated the regulative principle for worship.”
- Eras of Miracles and Divine Interventionism -- “God has intervened in a special, unique, and miraculous way throughout history. However, this kind of dealing is far less frequent.”
- Four armed intruders broke into Indiana home — but just two survived, police say -- “The suspects forced their way inside but were soon confronted by the homeowner, who was also armed, the TV station reported.”
- Francis Wayland: Preacher-Economist -- “One of the great but long-forgotten works of political economy from the nineteenth century was not written by a politician or an economist—it was written by the Baptist minister Francis Wayland (1796–1865).”
- Good Faith Debates -- “In early May we’ll be releasing a five-part video debate series featuring prominent Christian thinkers discussing some of the most divisive issues facing the church today.” (Not an endorsement of these debates, but just a “Hey, look, you might be interested in this.”)
- I questioned why children were being encouraged to transition – and it cost me my dream career -- “It seems mind-boggling that someone could be ejected from much-needed counselling work and therapy training for questioning how best to help vulnerable children.”
- Laguna Woods church shooter was targeting Taiwanese community: Sheriff -- “52-year-old Dr. John Cheng took it upon himself to charge across the room and to do everything he could to disable the assailant...He sacrificed himself so that others could live.”
- On the Death of 2 Children - a poem by Elder Gilbert Beebe -- “Jehovah has our good in view, He’ll give us grace and bear us through.”
- Standing up to Cancel Culture: Texas band gave up celebrity to defend the preborn -- “Texas-born musicians Jim Seals and Dash Crofts of the popular group Seals and Crofts were at the height of popularity in the early 1970s...All that changed in 1974 with the release of their album ‘Unborn Child.’”
- The five lost letters of the English language -- “We learned our letters as children and we forever have the ear-worm of the alphabet song stuck in our heads, but did you know that there were actually a few letters that didn't quite make the cut for our modern alphabet?”
- Traffic deaths surged 10.5% in 2021, the most since 2005 -- “This is the highest annual increase since record keeping began in 1975. (Interesting read, but curiously fails to mention anything about cellphones.)”
- William Jennings Bryan the Great Commoner -- “His skill at public speaking and his ability to connect with the ‘common man’ made him one of the most famous, beloved, and influential Americans of his time.”
- Yaupon: The rebirth of America’s forgotten tea -- “According to research conducted by Dr William Merrill of the Smithsonian Institution, the shrub was consumed by almost every Native American tribe who lived among it.”
Baptist blogger: (In response to the conspirator) Not so fast. Check this out.
Genesis 10:9 He was a mighty hunter before the Lord: wherefore [for that reason] it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the Lord.
Genesis 18:13 And the Lord said unto Abraham, Wherefore [for what reason] did Sarah laugh, saying, Shall I of a surety bear a child, which am old?
Thursday, May 19, 2022
To yͤ ſcolere ayenes my biblioðece:Axith Y thee, vndurſtõdiſt thou not VVyclif? If thou doiſt not, vvhi doiſt thou ſchevviſt me vvhat to knovve? Y vvot not vvhi Y ſchuldiſt herkne unto thee. Vndurſtõdiſt thou? If thou doiſt, geſſiſt thou vvooſt aboue alle? VVhat knovviſt thou, vvhiche vvee knovven not? VVhat vndurſtõdiſt thou, vvhiche vvee vviten not?
To yͤ ſcolere ayenes my biblioðece:
Axith Y thee, vndurſtõdiſt thou not VVyclif? If thou doiſt not, vvhi doiſt thou ſchevviſt me vvhat to knovve? Y vvot not vvhi Y ſchuldiſt herkne unto thee. Vndurſtõdiſt thou? If thou doiſt, geſſiſt thou vvooſt aboue alle? VVhat knovviſt thou, vvhiche vvee knovven not? VVhat vndurſtõdiſt thou, vvhiche vvee vviten not?
- If you cannot understand the King James translation of the Bible, why should I take your advice?
- If you can understand the King James translation of the Bible, why do you think I cannot?
Tuesday, May 17, 2022
“I have seen an original 1611 King James Version. I cannot read it. It looks like a foreign language.”
These and similar words roll off the tongues of otherwise intelligent people who do not appreciate and often even oppose the use of the King James Bible. If you claim some measure of scholarship and cannot read it, I am afraid of you. I’m no genius, but I can read the 1611 King James Bible. I use it in research, and have read it once from Genesis to Revelation. If a so-called Bible teacher is not educated enough to read a 1611 KJV, then he is not educated enough to lecture folks about texts and translations of the Bible.
However, there are sincere folks who might want to read the 1611 King James Bible, but struggle with the typography, spelling, etc. It has some variations from modern English printing that may initially be off-putting. Understanding these variations before beginning will remove some of the difficulties. Perseverance will remove many of the rest. Below I will give some visual samples from (as well as links to) pages of a 1611 Bible printed by the Kings printer, Robert Barker.
1611 Bible typeface
A typeface is a particular set of characters (alphabet, numerals, punctuation, etc.) that share a common design. In modern times, we often think in terms of “font.” Font is a specific size and style of a particular typeface. In Microsoft Word, Old English Text MT will produce a typeface similar to the typeface used in the 1611 translation.)
The 1611 Robert Barker printing of the new Bible translation uses three different types. The Bible translation itself is blackletter typeface. Blackletter is sometimes referred to as Gothic script or Old English, but it is not a typeface limited to English. It was common in the western European countries, and remained the popular typeface in Germany, Norway, and Sweden long after it had gone out of style in England and the United States.
The dedication, preface, chapter headings, summaries, genealogies, etc. are in roman type (and some italic), providing an intriguing visual distinction between the text of the Bible and its related materials. The first letter in each chapter is a very large roman letter. Illustration 1 shows large and small roman type used in the preface, “The Translators to the Reader.”
The text of the 1611 Bible is printed in blackletter type, and added target language words are in smaller roman type. These represent words that were added by the translators to more understandably translate from the source languages (Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek) into the target language (English). For examples, see the word “and” in Illustration 4, as well as “are” and “to bee” in Illustration 7. (When printers began to set the King James Bible in roman type instead of blackletter, italics were used to distinguish the added words, as appears in our modern printings of the KJV.) This was explained by Samuel Ward to the Synod of Dort, thusly:
“Sixthly, that words which it was anywhere necessary to insert into the text to complete the meaning were to be distinguished by another type, small roman.” Reported by translator Samuel Ward to the 1618 Synod of Dort
Illustration 2 shows the blackletter type in the first part of John 19:19, followed by small roman type. The superscription placed over the crucified Messiah is furnished in roman type and in all caps (Matthew 27:37; Mark 15:26; Luke 23:38; John 19:19). See Illustration 2. Notice also in the John 19 example above, that when “U” is capitalized, even within a word, it appears in the “V” style. These (u & v) are not two distinct letters in this Early Modern English blackletter typeface of the King James Bible.
Small roman type is used in the New Testament at least twice to designate a phrase found in the Greek text from the Syriac (or Aramaic) language: Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani (Matthew 27:46, but not in Mark 15:34), and Talitha cumi (Mark 5:41).
Various places in the explanatory materials use italic type, including the introductions, as well as in the marginal references to more literal translations, and the alternate readings.
1611 Bible alphabet
The letter i
There is no “J” or “j” in the 1611 English Bible, only an “I” or “i”. The capital “I” looks much like the later capital “J”. That is a stylistic flourish, however, rather than a different letter. The “j” look also appears as an extended ornamental flourish, as on the letter “i” at the end of Roman numerals. For example, XXIIJ or xxiij is Roman numeral 23.
The letter r
The rotunda or rounded r (ꝛ) is a stylized “r”, probably used by printers to save space. In the example from Ephesians 1:6-7 (Illustration 6), both types of “r” are used, the regular “r” and the rounded “r”. In verses six and seven, “ꝛ” is found in the words “praise”, “glorie”, “through”, “forgivenesse”, and “according”. The regular “r” is found in “grace”, “wherein”, “redemption”, “riches”, and “grace”. The rounded “r” (ꝛ) follows letters with curved strokes – “p”, “o”, and “h” in this example (and a “w” in Illustration 2). Other than style, it is no different than the regular “r”. The regular “r” always begins words (i.e., when “r” is used as the first letter). A 1611 capital “R” is seen in the word LORD in Illustration 4.
The words “five” and “second” (et al.) in Genesis 7:11 (Illustration 8, below) depict how easily the “f” might be confused with a long “s” (ſ), and vice versa.
Several points are demonstrated in Illustration 8, this snip of Genesis 7:11-13. The pilcrow is used. There are no apostrophes (’) to show possession, as we punctuate modern words. Notice “Noahs life” in verse 11 and “Noahs wife” in verse 13. Verse 13 gives an example of the capital “S” beginning the name “Sem”, as well as the use of the long “s” and short “s” in the word “sonnes”. “Iapheth” shows how the capitalized “I” looks quite like a modern “J” (though it is not).
The letter u
The “u” and “v” are interchangeable letters, according to their placement in a word. When it is the first letter of the word, “v” style is used. When within the word, “u” style is used. “V” is used when the letter is capitalized (See Illustration 2).
In some roman type “w” is a double u (that is, two of them side by side, and the “u” usually appears like a “v” – thus “vv”, – vvhen, vvhere, etc.). I do not believe this type printing occurs anywhere in the 1611 King James Bible.
The letter þ (called thorn)
A “y” (i.e., what appears to be one), when used with a superscript “e” (i.e., above the “y”, yͤ; see Illustration 9.) or in an abbreviation “yt” (yͭ, for “that” as in 2 Cor. 13:7), represents the Old English letter “thorn” (þ). In those cases, the “y” works as a “th” sound rather than “y”. It means “the” (not “ye”) and “that” (not “yet”). The word should not be confused with the second person plural pronoun “ye” (and it is pronounced with a “th” rather than “y” sound). This usage can be found in a number of places, such as in 1 Kings 11:1, Job 1:9, Ezekiel 32:28, John 3:16; 15:1, Romans 15:29, Colossians 1:1, and James 3:12. Illustration 10 shows the one place where I have found the abbreviation “yt” (yͭ) for “that”. There might be other cases.
1611 Bible symbols
A tilde or macron (~ -) is used in some words as a sort of abbreviation. An “m” or “n” following a vowel may be replaced by placing the tilde or macron over the vowel, as cõfessing in Mark 1:5. This is the equivalent of “confessing,” abbreviated. This usage probably was a printer’s decision, to save space; compare Matthew 3:6 where it is confessing rather than cõfessing. In 2 Corinthians 13:7 what appears to be a “y” is a form of the letter “thorn” (þ) The “yt” (yͭ) is an abbreviation for “that”.
These two verses in Isaiah 53 in Illustration 12 show three different symbols used to lead to marginal notes: asterisk, cross or dagger, and double bar (*, †, ||). The asterisk (*) denotes a cross reference to a related scripture or scriptures. The cross, or dagger, (†) indicates a more literal translation (prefaced by Heb., Chal., or Gr., followed by a word or words in italics).The double bar (||) points to an alternate reading (|| Or, followed by a word or words in italics).
At the bottom right of pages in the 1611 Bible, you will find a “catchword.” A catchword is a word placed at the right-hand foot of the page that anticipates (records or repeats) the first word on the following page. See Illustration 13. This was common in early printed texts up into the 18th century. It probably helped both the printer and the reader to make the connection between the two pages.
In the 1611 Bible, there are no quotation marks (“ ”) for dialogue, quotes, etc. If you use a modern KJV printing, this is the same, not a difference. Some of these typographical or orthographical traits may be seen continuing much later and even in printings in roman type, such as the long “s” and the “i” instead of “j”.
1611 Bible words
Extended discussion of Bible words is too cumbersome to include here. In 1611, English spelling was not standardized to the point is has now developed. Therefore, a number of variant spellings appear throughout the 1611 printing. An “e” word ending that has dropped out of use is a very common trait. Nevertheless, it should be rare that the average reader cannot discern what the word is, despite the variant spelling. The sound of the word is often the same or very similar.
A few examples
- beleeveth = believeth
- crosse = cross
- doe = do
- euery = every
- fortie = forty
- iniquitie = iniquity
- layd = laid
- moneth = month
- onely = only
- owne = own
- riuer = river
- shalbe = shall be
- sonne = son
- warre = war
- windowes = windows
- yerre = year
Monday, May 16, 2022
- adorbs, adjective. (Informal) Inspiring great delight; charming, cute, or adorable (e.g., totes adorbs is slang for totally adorable).
- blagging, noun (Caribbean). An informal conversation in a public place, often deceitful.
- catchword, noun. A word under the right-hand side of the last line on a book page that repeats the first word on the following page; a word printed or placed so as to attract attention.
- emprise, noun. An adventurous enterprise; knightly daring or prowess.
- fabulate, verb (used without object). To tell invented stories; create fables or stories filled with fantasy.
- feculence, noun. The accumulation of dirt, sediment, or waste matter.
- flatulence, noun. The accumulation of gas in the alimentary canal; inflated or pretentious speech or writing; pomposity.
- internecine, adjective. Destructive to both sides in a conflict; relating to conflict within a group or organization.
- lionize, verb. Give a lot of public attention and approval to (someone); treat as a celebrity.
- phantasmagoric, adjective. Having a fantastic or deceptive appearance; having the appearance of an optical illusion; changing or shifting, as a scene made up of many elements.
- philological, adjective. Related to or having to do with the branch of knowledge that deals with the structure, historical development, and relationships of a language or languages.
- pilcrow, noun. A symbol (e.g. ¶) used to mark a new paragraph or section of text.
- pore, verb. (intransitive) To gaze intently; to read or study attentively; to reflect or meditate steadily.
- stagflation, noun. Persistent high inflation, high unemployment, and stagnant demand in a country’s economy.
- Tarmac, noun. A brand of bituminous binder, similar to tarmacadam, used for surfacing roads or other outdoor areas, consisting of crushed rock mixed with tar; (lower case) a runway or other area surfaced with tarmac.
- typography, noun. The style and appearance of printed matter.
- zed, noun. (chiefly British) The letter z.
“...the believers’ churches have never really been noted for their contributions to the scholastic artistry of summa theologia. This is not so much a failure as a continual rebuke to the aridity to which academic theology is too commonly subject...the focus of the believers’ church theologian is upon the church rather than the academy. And the church is busy about reading the Bible and living from it. Indeed, the undisciplined evangelical academy is recognized for what it has imported into the church, an unbiblical order...In the believers’ churches the idea that constructing a biblical theology is the responsibility of every believer is accompanied by the idea that theological judgment is best carried out by the church.”Malcolm Yarnell III in The Formation of Christian Doctrine, pp. 76-77.
Sunday, May 15, 2022
The hymn first appeared in A Garland from the Parables in 1858. It is Hymn XXVI on page 56, with the heading from the text of John 10:11 - “I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep.”
1. There is no love like the love of Jesus,
Never to fade or fall
’Till into the rest of the house of God
He has gathered us all!
2. There is no heart like the heart of Jesus,
Filled with a tender lore;
No throb nor throe that our hearts can know;
But he suffered before!
3. There is no eye like the eye of Jesus,
Piercing far away;
Never out of the sight of its tender light
Can the wanderer stray!
4. There is no voice like the voice of Jesus,
Ah! how sweet its chime;
Like musical ring of some rushing spring
In the bright summer-time!
5. O might we listen to the voice of Jesus!
O might we never roam;
’Till our souls should rest in peace on his breast,
In the heavenly home!
The following chorus or refrain appears with the hymn in Songs of Salvation by Theodore E. Perkins and Alfred Taylor, but not in A Garland from the Parables. Perkins, who wrote the tune, likely wrote or added the chorus. In Songs of Salvation, the song is titled Love of Jesus and associated with John 15:13a, “Greater love hath no man than this...”
Boundless, and pure, and free;
Oh, turn to that love, weary wand’ring soul;
Jesus pleadeth for thee.
Saturday, May 14, 2022
- Abortion Trends by Gender -- “The second set of graphs displays men’s and women’s self-identification since 1995 as ‘pro-choice’ vs. ‘pro-life’ on the abortion issue.”
- Ballot Harvesting, the Big Lie, and the 2020 Election -- “...ballot harvesting occurs when operatives essentially vote for massive numbers of people who would not vote otherwise. They fill out the ballots for people who would not vote.”
- Breakthrough: Researchers Identify Possible Cause Of Deadly SIDS Infants’ Disease -- “Dr. Carmel Harrington, who has a PHD in Sleep Medicine from Sydney University in Australia, lost her two-year-old son Damien to SIDS in 1991.”
- Folk’s Golden Hour -- “Buffalo Bill made a fortune and built his Wild West show into an international empire by following one simple rule: Perform where people are already gathering.”
- Hackers fool major tech companies into handing over data of women and minors to abuse -- “Some major tech companies have unwittingly opened harassment and exploitation opportunities to the women and children...because they provided information in response to emergency data requests from law enforcement accounts that hackers had compromised.”
- Jigsaw Puzzles: Piecing Together Headstone -- “While we were getting some shade, it was obvious there were stone pieces all around us. Some just above the soil line, some that one would never see without digging.”
- NPR’s Totenberg Claims The “Leading Theory” is that the Leaker is a Conservative Clerk -- “However, we do not know what evidence is available to investigators and Totenberg does not claim such knowledge.”
- Remembering Bo Pilgrim -- “Bo and his brother Aubrey started Pilgrim’s Pride in 1946 when they opened a feed store in Pittsburg, Texas. Bo became CEO after Aubrey’s death in 1966.”
- Right on Rain -- “Skeptics may scoff, but whenever purple flowers appear on this neighborhood shrub, wet stuff happens.”
- Roe Leak Explodes in Dems’ Faces - 1st Poll After SCOTUS Report Shows GOP Lead Soars, Tied for 25-Year High -- “The leak of a draft Supreme Court opinion that would overturn Roe v. Wade and return the issue of legalized abortion to the individual state legislatures was supposed to energize Democrats ahead of the midterms.”
- Spurgeon on the Martyrdom of John the Baptist -- “John did not mince matters, or leave the question alone. What was a king to him, if that king trampled on the law of God?”
- The Evangelical Mob -- “So pastors and professors, fearful of the mob have remained in their academic domiciles, intimidated by the Academy or Church that will have them fired if they speak against them.”
- The Unravelling of an Expert on Serial Killers -- “Can you imagine yourself in a long hallway? Each time you open a door, behind it there’s another door. That’s how many lies there were.”
- Why you should be taking security advice from your grandmother -- “Older folks are dodging COVID-19 scams and all sorts of other shenanigans. Meanwhile, the news is definitely not as good the lower down the age slide we go.”
Friday, May 13, 2022
Q. Do 2 Samuel 10:18 and 1 Chronicles 19:18 contradict?
2 Samuel 10:18 “And the Syrians fled before Israel; and David slew the men of seven hundred chariots of the Syrians, and forty thousand horsemen, and smote Shobach the captain of their host, who died there.”
1 Chronicles 19:18 “But the Syrians fled before Israel; and David slew of the Syrians seven thousand men which fought in chariots, and forty thousand footmen, and killed Shophach the captain of the host.”
A. The two verses do not contradict, though it may appear so without due consideration. 2 Samuel 10:18 describes the deaths of an unspecified number of men who rode in “seven hundred chariots.” 1 Chronicles 19:18 describes the deaths of “seven thousand men” who rode in an unspecified number of chariots. In other words, 2 Samuel 10:18 gives the number of chariots and 1 Chronicles 19:18 gives the number of men.
- 2 Samuel 10:18 describes the number of chariots, 700. The men of seven hundred chariots.
- 1 Chronicles 19:18 describes the number of men, 7000. Seven thousand men which fought in chariots.
Another comparison, 2 Samuel 8:4 and 1 Chronicles 18:4
“And David took from him a thousand chariots, and seven hundred horsemen, and twenty thousand footmen: and David houghed all the chariot horses, but reserved of them for an hundred chariots..” 2 Samuel 8:4
“And David took from him a thousand chariots, and seven thousand horsemen, and twenty thousand footmen: David also houghed all the chariot horses, but reserved of them an hundred chariots.” 1 Chronicles 18:4
Thoughts of others
John Gill’s Commentary on 2 Samuel 8:4 - here are meant the ranks and companies of horses David took, which were seven hundred; and these having ten in a company or rank, made seven thousand; and there the complement of soldiers in those companies and ranks are intended.
Matthew Poole’s Annotations on 2 Samuel 8:4 - Seven hundred horsemen; Or, seven hundred companies of horsemen, that is, in all seven thousand; as it is 1 Chronicles 18:4, there being ten in each company, and each ten having a ruler or captain.
Another comparison, 1 Kings 4:26 and 2 Chronicles 9:25
“And Solomon had forty thousand stalls of horses for his chariots, and twelve thousand horsemen. 1 Kings 4:26
“And Solomon had four thousand stalls for horses and chariots, and twelve thousand horsemen; whom he bestowed in the chariot cities, and with the king at Jerusalem.” 2 Chronicles 9:25
This shows that Solomon had 40,000 stalls for the horses of his chariots and he had 4,000 stalls for teams of horse and chariot together. That comparison shows a string of 10 horses per chariot.