Question: Is the book of Job a true story or an allegory?
The protagonist of the story is identified by name (Job) and gender (man), and located by place (land of Uz). The story of Job is presented to the reader as history. The story tells about a man, gives his name, mentions where he lived, and provides details about his life, his family, his friends and his calamity. Cf. e.g. Job 1:1-5; Job 2:9-13; Job 42:10-16.
Two biblical writers – one in the Old Testament and one in the New Testament – refer to Job as an historical person. Ezekiel lists Job along with two known historical persons, Noah and Daniel (Ezekiel 14:14-20). James cites “the prophets” generally (the prophets were real historical people) as examples of suffering and patience – and then names Job as a credible historical figure of whom they had heard, whose example might comfort the suffering by demonstrating the mercy and compassion of God (James 5:10-11).
The concluding material about Job – especially about his daughters – has the earmarks of an historical record rather than a fictional account. The names of his three daughters, their extraordinary beauty and their receiving equal inheritance with their brothers does not seem particularly pertinent to concluding an allegory on suffering. On the other hand, it adds a fine touch to concluding the historical record of a man who suffered greatly (Job 42:14-15).